The question is how much can you make within the Intenret business world. The answer is, as much as you want. Wealthy Affiliate is less of an “opportunity” and more of an all-inclusive environment where you can create and grow a business online…and do so to any level. Everything is included that you need to create your business, and managed it. Really the only missing piece is you and a bit of hard work and dedication.

If you have a propensity for writing and you can slay with your prose, consider writing an ebook. While the market has certainly become saturated as of late, books that help teach people about a technical topic still sell extremely well. This is a great source of passive income but does require a large amount of effort at the outset before any money is generated.
Create a writer website or blog. A website not only demonstrates your technical ability, but it also creates an online hub that allows clients to connect to you. Keep the design of your website clean and uncluttered. Include examples of your work that demonstrate the kind of writing you do. Make the samples easy to find and to read, and make it easy for visitors to figure out how to contact you.[23] .
Suppose you’re running a gadget blog and you’re delighted with your new Kindle Fire. So you write a post describing the new features and how you find it even more useful than your old Kindle. In the course of your post you add a text link to the product page on Amazon.com. You might mention that other users love it too, judging from the overwhelmingly positive user reviews, and maybe mention something about the range of Kindle Fire accessories that are available.
If you add up all the services you get, the premium membership is a steal. For example, you’ll notice they include unlimited keyword research with a membership. Other paid keyword research tools sell for $49 or more just by themselves. Add in website hosting, and there’s another $10 / mo. Add on the website security package, and there’s another $10 per month (I’ve paid as much as $29 / mo just for website security). Just based on those things alone, Wealthy Affiliate is a great deal with all of the resources and tools you need in one convenient place. Not to mention all of the training, tutorials, and support that is included with the membership.

Best Forex Partners (BFP) was established in 2011 by a group of international financiers and global online marketing professionals who saw a need to change the nature of affiliate marketing for the better.  In a few short years they combined their over 60 years of combined financial and marketing experience to create a new way to affiliate market and have never looked back!


A relative newcomer that was only founded in 2014, ConvertKit has taken the world of email marketing by storm. According to the company, they now have nearly 20,000 active customers of their email services. Their affiliate program works by paying existing customers a lifetime 30 percent commission for referrals that subsequently become ConvertKit customers or who sign up for ConvertKit webinars and other digital products.
He is the co-founder of Neil Patel Digital. The Wall Street Journal calls him a top influencer on the web, Forbes says he is one of the top 10 marketers, and Entrepreneur Magazine says he created one of the 100 most brilliant companies. Neil is a New York Times bestselling author and was recognized as a top 100 entrepreneur under the age of 30 by President Obama and a top 100 entrepreneur under the age of 35 by the United Nations.

MaxBounty works exclusively with digital products, usually about giving one’s email or signing up for a newsletter. MaxBounty has CPA, Pay-per-call, and CPL campaigns that you can choose from. MaxBounty is involved in a large number of verticals, including market research, real estate, social games, finance, dating, and diet, but is primarily designed for marketers seeking to acquire new leads.

If you add up all the services you get, the premium membership is a steal. For example, you’ll notice they include unlimited keyword research with a membership. Other paid keyword research tools sell for $49 or more just by themselves. Add in website hosting, and there’s another $10 / mo. Add on the website security package, and there’s another $10 per month (I’ve paid as much as $29 / mo just for website security). Just based on those things alone, Wealthy Affiliate is a great deal with all of the resources and tools you need in one convenient place. Not to mention all of the training, tutorials, and support that is included with the membership.
MaxBounty works exclusively with digital products, usually about giving one’s email or signing up for a newsletter. MaxBounty has CPA, Pay-per-call, and CPL campaigns that you can choose from. MaxBounty is involved in a large number of verticals, including market research, real estate, social games, finance, dating, and diet, but is primarily designed for marketers seeking to acquire new leads.
Often, what happens is that we run into unscrupulous Internet Marketers (IMs) who have less-than altruistic intentions of extracting money from you rather than helping you to make it. However, this isn't something new. People have been falling for networking marketing, pyramid schemes, and affiliate marketing scams since before the start of the net.
Now, making money online should seem like a pleasurable activity. Why wouldn't we do just about anything to see things through, since it would be a major source of pleasure, right? Wrong. In the beginning, like anything else, we might get really excited about it. We might also set our hopes very high. But that all comes crashing down when we begin to fail.
These classes are typically run by Jay, one of the top experts within the WA community but there have been guest experiences by Kyle and others over the years. There is a live chat and a full question and answer period with every live class. Each live class is usually around 1.5 hours in length and the replays will be available to you the next day (along with 100’s of hours of past live classes).
There are many ways to get people onto your list. Lead magnets are one such resource. For example, you can build ebooks, checklists and cheat sheets. But you can also do content upgrades, such as PDF versions of an article with added resources in them, four-part video training series, and more. Think about your audience and what you can offer them to better serve them, then treat them with some respect and you'll eventually reap the rewards.
You'll also need ecommerce software, fulfillment software, worry about warehousing, customer service and refunds. But that's not all. You'll also need traffic. Think search engine optimization, Facebook ads, and other social media campaigns. It is hard work, especially on your own. You could opt for Amazon's platform, which might be the easier route. But, then again, at the end of the day, this is a serious business, which could produce significant profits. So you're either all in or you're not. 
I recently became an Amazon Associate and set up an Amazon Store. Are there affiliate marketers who would promote my store on a commission-only basis? I could set up a unique tracking ID for them and they would receive a portion of the commissions I receive from Amazon. My store is worthless without traffic so I would be happy to share the commissions. I would like to spend my time creating and maintaining more stores and turn over the promotion of them to someone who is good at that.
The primary purpose of any review, including this review of Wealthy Affiliate, is to help you decide if you should or should not sign up or purchase something. For starters, since you can sign up for a free account at Wealthy Affiliate, I think that is a no-brainer way to go. Don’t take my word or anyone else’s word for it, go see for yourself! There is no credit card required or anything like that. It’s completely free to try.
People are turning to audio and visuals when it comes to technical subjects. However, you should consider doing an ebook first and turning it into an audiobook through a resource like Audible's ACX platform. You can hire a producer either through a royalty share program, so you don't have to shell out upfront cash, or you can do a pay-per-hour hire as well.

In the case of cost per mille/click, the publisher is not concerned about whether a visitor is a member of the audience that the advertiser tries to attract and is able to convert, because at this point the publisher has already earned his commission. This leaves the greater, and, in case of cost per mille, the full risk and loss (if the visitor cannot be converted) to the advertiser.
Although it differs from spyware, adware often uses the same methods and technologies. Merchants initially were uninformed about adware, what impact it had, and how it could damage their brands. Affiliate marketers became aware of the issue much more quickly, especially because they noticed that adware often overwrites tracking cookies, thus resulting in a decline of commissions. Affiliates not employing adware felt that it was stealing commission from them. Adware often has no valuable purpose and rarely provides any useful content to the user, who is typically unaware that such software is installed on his/her computer.
I would also like to see a forum built into the platform. Wealthy Affiliate has a unique way of building a community and I understand why they shy away from a standard forum type of format. Instead, they want to promote live chat sessions, blog posts, private messaging, and public questions where people can comment below. This type of setup is pretty cool at times, but I also do enjoy forums where I can just browse by topic.

A multinational company may set up affiliates to break into international markets while protecting the parent company's name in case the affiliate fails or the parent company is not viewed favorably due to its foreign origin. Understanding the differences between affiliates and other company arrangements is important in covering debts and other legal obligations.

Finally, if you’re only planning on “dipping your toes in the water” to see what affiliate marketing is all about, do not sign up for the premium membership. The free membership is more than enough for you to see what it’s all about. Premium membership should be reserved for those who are actually serious about building a real business for themselves. If you aren’t in this for the long-haul, there is no reason to waste your money.


Write pitches. If you have located a client for whom you want to write, send pitches, which are topic ideas for articles. Write pitches that not only show your expertise, but also demonstrate your enthusiasm for the topic.[21] First, read the publication to which you are sending pitches to familiarize yourself with what they publish. If applicable, identify a specific section and send our pitch to the appropriate editor. Also, include a brief summary of who you are.[22]

People are turning to audio and visuals when it comes to technical subjects. However, you should consider doing an ebook first and turning it into an audiobook through a resource like Audible's ACX platform. You can hire a producer either through a royalty share program, so you don't have to shell out upfront cash, or you can do a pay-per-hour hire as well.
Cost per action/sale methods require that referred visitors do more than visit the advertiser's website before the affiliate receives a commission. The advertiser must convert that visitor first. It is in the best interest of the affiliate to send the most closely targeted traffic to the advertiser as possible to increase the chance of a conversion. The risk and loss are shared between the affiliate and the advertiser.

Ebay is a bellwether. It's been around since nearly the start of the online boom. But, like any other platform, success can seem fleeting if you don't know what you're doing. Selling items on eBay, professionally that is, can be an art form. Getting people interested in your auctions isn't always easy, especially when there's hefty competition and low demand for what you're selling.
Don't sacrifice morals for a quick buck — At the outset, you'll want to do all sorts of things to make money online, but don't sacrifice your morals for a quick buck. Not only will you put people off, but you'll lose Google's trust. You also shouldn't concern yourself with things like Adsense or other ads on a blog before you have around 100,000 visitors per day. Yes, per day. 

Hi there, I’ve been with Wealthy Affiliate for 6 months now, and have 4 websites built and hosted there.  After reading your review I completely agree with your 10 points about why WA is not a scam – it’s pure gold!  It’s just such great value for all of the training from the courses and the live coach every week and the members themselves.  If you can imagine that over 1 million people are doing this too and are able to produce training then you can imagine the amount of value that you receive from this authority site.
Warrior Forum WSO’s – This is the only option on the list I will actually tell you to stay away from. Warrior Forum WSO’s are almost always a rip-off and no amount of them will adequately teach you how to truly build a real online business. This forum community is owned by Freelancer.com and they will allow just about anyone to sell just about anything. The majority of them are very cheap, but once you give them your email address, get ready to be spammed. They also almost always include “upsells” where the initial product may only cost a few bucks, but all the other products they sell you within the first product costs substantially more. I could write all day about why you should never purchase a Warrior Forum WSO, but if you want to learn more, you can read my article about Warrior Forum WSO’s here.
With the ability to rank organically in search engine queries, bloggers excel at increasing a seller’s conversions. The blogger samples the product or service and then writes a comprehensive review that promotes the brand in a compelling way, driving traffic back to the seller’s site. The blogger is awarded for his or her influence spreading the word about the value of the product, helping to improve the seller’s sales.
I didn’t realize there was a limit until a few years back when I hit the maximum. I wish Amazon would increase it! To be honest, I find their tracking system pretty messy and think it needs an overhaul however, it is great for testing what works and what doesn’t. Most of what I’ve written about in other tips in these articles was learned through tracking.
I’ve noticed that a lot of people who sign up for Wealthy Affiliate are those who are in dire need of financial help. They may have lost a job or may have suffered some other financial setback such as medical issues. The thing is, there’s no reason these people should stay away from Wealthy Affiliate, but many of them have this expectation that they can create a full-time income in a matter of weeks or even a few months. That is NOT the case. Remember, it takes an average business 3 years to profit. Fortunately, it will not take that long with an online business, but it will take considerable time and effort. If you need an income source fast, Wealthy Affiliate is not the place to provide that. Instead, Wealthy Affiliate teaches you how to build a real, sustainable online business over a period of time that will also last a long time.

Affiliate marketing is commonly confused with referral marketing, as both forms of marketing use third parties to drive sales to the retailer. The two forms of marketing are differentiated, however, in how they drive sales, where affiliate marketing relies purely on financial motivations, while referral marketing relies more on trust and personal relationships.[citation needed] 

Yes! Wealthy Affiliate is most certainly an evolving affiliate marketing platform and even if you were away for a few months, you would likely notice a vast number of improvements. This is why it is the most trusted and recommended program in the industry for both aspiring and successful affiliate marketers, because they actually evolve and innovate frequently.
However, if you’re running an e-commerce site, conducting product testing and reviews, or offer Amazon product coupons, then you probably will want to use a WordPress Amazon affiliate theme. To be clear, these themes aren’t usually made specifically for Amazon affiliates. Instead, what you’ll want to look for are e-commerce or multi-purpose WordPress themes that are:
In effect, VigLink works as the middleman between a publisher (blogger) and merchants by scanning the publisher’s content and automatically creating links to publishers that are chosen “in real time” based on their payout/conversation rates. This makes VigLink a very hands-off affiliate program for publishers who prefer to focus on content instead of managing their affiliate links.
As search engines have become more prominent, some affiliate marketers have shifted from sending e-mail spam to creating automatically generated web pages that often contain product data feeds provided by merchants. The goal of such web pages is to manipulate the relevancy or prominence of resources indexed by a search engine, also known as spamdexing. Each page can be targeted to a different niche market through the use of specific keywords, with the result being a skewed form of search engine optimization.
Don't sacrifice morals for a quick buck — At the outset, you'll want to do all sorts of things to make money online, but don't sacrifice your morals for a quick buck. Not only will you put people off, but you'll lose Google's trust. You also shouldn't concern yourself with things like Adsense or other ads on a blog before you have around 100,000 visitors per day. Yes, per day. 
In the BigCommerce affiliate program, you receive a 200% bounty per referral and $1,500 per Enterprise referral, with no cap on commissions. Plus, the more referrals you drive through the program, the higher your commission tier will go. BigCommerce uses an industry leading 90-day cookie, so you will receive credit for up to three months for the referrals you generate. Also, there are no obligations or minimum commitments to join the program.
The question is how much can you make within the Intenret business world. The answer is, as much as you want. Wealthy Affiliate is less of an “opportunity” and more of an all-inclusive environment where you can create and grow a business online…and do so to any level. Everything is included that you need to create your business, and managed it. Really the only missing piece is you and a bit of hard work and dedication.
I do this because I want to build a solid reputation and a loyal readership of people who trust me. I’d rather make less money and still have a reader than make lots of money and never see the reader again. For me, this comes not only from my ethics but my belief that in the long term building a good profile and reputation leads to other opportunities for profit.
It’s a great way to make passive income. Of course, when I say “passive”, this doesn’t account for the time needed to spend building or maintaining your WordPress site. However, in terms of having to promote these affiliate links, you can put in as much or as little work as you want to drive traffic to them. This obviously makes this a great option for a passive income stream if you’re not in the business of e-commerce.
If you live in an area where Uber or Lyft operate, why not become a driver? If you're looking to make some short-term cash, you can definitely rake it in by working for one of these popular car-hire apps. As long as your vehicle fits within the specifications of their program, and you have a clean license, you could do this on the side, especially if you're in a crunch for cash.

You can make really good commissions from the eBay partner but it depends on the products which you decide to promote. Interestingly the commission levels vary according to where you are in the world not just on the products you decide to promote. One of the great reasons to sign up is that you can earn DOUBLE commissions in your first three months. They offer free to use link generators, ad creatives and widgets for you to promote different eBay items. eBay has over 162 Million active buyers which means there is a great potential to convert your traffic.
This is Simon, thank you for your post, it is very helpful for me. However, we are a lighting company, and we are plan to try the Affiliate Website to increase our sale. But it seem that there are many different Affiliate website to be chose and some of them also need pay some fee to begin, so as we just begin to do this, which website is your recommend ?
Betfair Affiliates is the affiliate marketing program for the well known Betfair betting website. Betfair’s primary market is sports betting. It’s actually a betting exchange, so it allows gamblers to place lay bets too – in other words, bets that bank on the opposite outcome. Betfair also offers in-play betting that allows users to lock in profits before the match ends. They also have great offers for the new customers to Betfair Casino.
LinkConnector is something of a mixed bag, so it’s probably best for experienced affiliates who have become disillusioned with other networks and are looking to expand. LinkConnector’s bizarre mix of high-quality products and a low-quality dashboard make it hard to truly assess its viability, but their exclusive deals with some vendors can make it a true home run for publishers working in certain niches.
Commercial use requires 'releases' - editorial use doesn't. Stock photos can be sold for commercial (eg, marketing) or editorial (ie, journalistic) use. You'll have more opportunities to make cash if your photos are available for both, but photos containing people or property (including branding and logos) need signed releases to be sold commercially.
There are SO MANY success stories on Wealthy Affiliate, these are just some of the ones I found. One thing you’ll notice is that most of these success stories are NOT making money by promoting Wealthy Affiliate. They are promoting an array of other products and services. Wealthy Affiliate teaches you how to promote nearly any product or service in nearly any industry. That’s the beauty of it. Wealthy Affiliate does offer a fantastic affiliate program (which I am a part of), but there are so many other things you can promote once you go through the training.
Not to mentioned the support you can get from experts, the 10,000’s of conversations that you can take part in, and a great deal of training to get you rolling with your business. It is going to get you rolling, and of course, if you want to take your business more seriously and access the key to the community, there is the Premium membership there for that. But you decide. We can assure you that the Starter membership (which is free) is better than anything else in the industry…let alone the Premium service.
If you're serious about making money online, start a blog. Blogging is one of the easiest and most sustainable income sources. As long as the blog is setup the right way, in the right niche, with the right content targeted at the right audience, and the offer is complementary to the content, you could make a tremendous amount of passive income from a blog.
I realize my bias is already showing through, so I’ll get to what I DON’T like about Wealthy Affiliate below. But, as I’ve already stated, overall I don’t know of any other place that is better for new affiliate marketers to get started than Wealthy Affiliate. If you take a look around my site, you’ll notice I’ve spent a TON of time on it. I’ve spent years of my life building this site, and there are currently almost 500 posts here, all for free, for everyone. It is in my best interest to promote only the best training course and that training course is Wealthy Affiliate. 

Free Training Across The Web – Believe it or not, most of the training I’ve received over the years are sources I’ve found for free all over the web. I’ve shared a LOT of that info with you on this very website through my nearly 500 blog posts (to date). However, you should also check out sources such as YouTube. It’s true, places such as YouTube are filled with scammers and spammers, but mixed within those are some gems. For example, you can look up keynote speeches on affiliate marketing from various conferences, such as Affiliate Summit speakers. Using free content from around the web is hard to sort out and make sense of, so it’s best to use a service like Wealthy Affiliate because you are able to learn the things you need to learn, in the order you need to learn them, without all the distractions. However, as you progress, you may need to learn something specific, at which point you can go to free sources across the web to learn as you need it.
These classes are typically run by Jay, one of the top experts within the WA community but there have been guest experiences by Kyle and others over the years. There is a live chat and a full question and answer period with every live class. Each live class is usually around 1.5 hours in length and the replays will be available to you the next day (along with 100’s of hours of past live classes).
Provide excellent customer service. Answer any questions buyers post as quickly as possible. Be professional and courteous. Positive communication builds your reputation with buyers and gets you return business. Also, package your product well and ship it out quickly. Allowing an item to become damaged or taking too long to ship can negatively affect your reputation among buyers. Wrap all items, especially fragile ones, in appropriate packaging. Commit to shipping items as soon as you receive payment.[32]
I was a skeptic for years! I researched every which way to make money online, and could not find a program that interested me or I thought would work for me. I stumbled upon WA by accident, and it had something that others didn’t…A training platform. I really wanted to LEARN how to create a business online, and learn by trial and error yet have the support of a community to help guide me if I got lost. 
In 2006, the most active sectors for affiliate marketing were the adult gambling, retail industries and file-sharing services.[21]:149–150 The three sectors expected to experience the greatest growth are the mobile phone, finance, and travel sectors.[21] Soon after these sectors came the entertainment (particularly gaming) and Internet-related services (particularly broadband) sectors. Also several of the affiliate solution providers expect to see increased interest from business-to-business marketers and advertisers in using affiliate marketing as part of their mix.[21]:149–150
Also known as a publisher, the affiliate can be either an individual or a company that markets the seller’s product in an appealing way to potential consumers. In other words, the affiliate promotes the product to persuade consumers that it is valuable or beneficial to them and convince them to purchase the product. If the consumer does end up buying the product, the affiliate receives a portion of the revenue made.
Many affiliate programs run with last-click attribution, where the affiliate receiving the last click before the sale gets 100% credit for the conversion. This is changing. With affiliate platforms providing new attribution models and reporting features, you are able to see a full-funnel, cross-channel view of how individual marketing tactics are working together. For example, you might see that a paid social campaign generated the first click, Affiliate X got click 2, and Affiliate Y got the last click. With this full picture, you can structure your affiliate commissions so that Affiliate X gets a percentage of the credit for the sale, even though they didn’t get the last click. 
1. Yes, you don’t need to know a thing about affiliate marketing. In fact, if you have not been predisposed to training already sometimes that can be a good thing. There is a lot of misinformation out there about affiliate marketing, which leads people more often than not to failure. Wealthy Affiliate can and is consistently helping the absolutely newbie. You are going to learn the foundational building blocks and in the first few lessons alone you are going to have your very own niche website up and running.
Many voucher code web sites use a click-to-reveal format, which requires the web site user to click to reveal the voucher code. The action of clicking places the cookie on the website visitor's computer. In the United Kingdom, the IAB Affiliate Council under chair Matt Bailey announced regulations[46] that stated that "Affiliates must not use a mechanism whereby users are encouraged to click to interact with content where it is unclear or confusing what the outcome will be."
So, now that you know everything there is to know about how to add Amazon affiliate links to WordPress, what will you do with this information? Just save a little money on Amazon? Will you start out small and embed promotional product links into your blog content? Will you be adventurous and launch your own Amazon affiliate store? Or are you concerned about the use of too many affiliate links affecting site speed?
With possibly the most transparent affiliate network online, we give affiliates access to stats no other program dare, including earning data, conversion stats, demographic information and seasonality trends. With ethics and consumer protection being high on the agenda, you can rest assured when working with MoreNiche you are working with an honest, trustworthy and transparent company.

Considering that you have a finite amount of time, passive income should make up a large part of your work. If you're serious about generating any semblance of income online, then passive income should be one of your sole goals and ambitions. Why? Wouldn't you prefer to do the work one time and get paid repeatedly as opposed to relying on your time to generate that income? Invest the time at the front-end so that you can reap the benefits on the back-end. This means putting in a bit of sweat equity and not getting paid today. Rather, you'll get paid somewhere down the road. And you'll continue getting paid whether you keep building that passive income stream or you stop. 
The entire reason I created this site is because as an affiliate marketer, I started getting upset with the lack of ethics and misinformation being spread from MANY affiliate marketers, especially as it pertains to the “make money online” niche. So many online marketers out there promise you quick easy money if you just sign up and pay for this or that. Quite frankly, I’m sick of it. Growing an affiliate marketing business is just like starting any other business – it takes time, effort, and a lot of trial and error. I won’t get into it here, but if you’d like you can read my honest article about how long it takes to earn a full-time living with affiliate marketing.
19. eBay – Of course you can’t read an article about making money online that doesn’t mention eBay. You can start an eBay store and get serious about it or you can just sell some stuff to declutter your home. Either way, I’ve made my fair share from selling on eBay and it’s still a popular way to earn money. If you decide to start an actual eBay store, you’ll want to find a drop-ship business like Doba that will store and ship items straight to your customers so you don’t have to deal with an inventory.

Affiliate marketing overlaps with other Internet marketing methods to some degree, because affiliates often use regular advertising methods. Those methods include organic search engine optimization (SEO), paid search engine marketing (PPC – Pay Per Click), e-mail marketing, content marketing, and (in some sense) display advertising. On the other hand, affiliates sometimes use less orthodox techniques, such as publishing reviews of products or services offered by a partner.[citation needed]
Research other listings in your city on AirBnB and see what the going rate is for a place like yours. You could also just rent out a private room as well or even a bed in a shared room. In fact, that's how AirBnB got its start. However, you might find it hard in the beginning without reviews, but as long as you take really good care of your guests and provide a lot of value, the reviews will eventually come rolling in.

Betfair Affiliates is the affiliate marketing program for the well known Betfair betting website. Betfair’s primary market is sports betting. It’s actually a betting exchange, so it allows gamblers to place lay bets too – in other words, bets that bank on the opposite outcome. Betfair also offers in-play betting that allows users to lock in profits before the match ends. They also have great offers for the new customers to Betfair Casino.
Building trust with your audience is paramount in affiliate marketing, and the quickest way to lose trust is to recommend products either you haven’t used before or that aren’t a good fit for your audience. Also make sure you never tell anyone to directly buy a product, you are simply recommending the product. The more helpful you are and the more you make quality recommendations, the more likely your web visitors will come back for your expertise. 
The thing is, you don’t need to be a writer to be very successful at creating content. Can you write an email to a friend? If so, then you can be the BEST writer there is out there. Too many people think content creation is about having an English major, when in reality it is communicating with your audience and often times about something that you are passionate or love doing.
Upwork: This website offers a great marketplace for selling just about any professional service. You don't need a merchant account, website of your own or anything else for that matter. All you need to do is be able to provide a high-quality service at a reasonable price. But be informed, you will have to compete with many others that are constantly bidding on open jobs.  
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